The Mediterranean diet has a long history and there is considerable research into the health benefits that it offers. There are many different variations but the basic principle involves a strong reliance on healthy fats (particularly olive oil) and on vegetables, along with moderate protein intake.
Unlike modern western diets, this approach also focuses on whole foods and on whole grains, using few to no processed options. It also differs from some of the other lifestyle changes in that you’re not specifically avoiding carbs. Indeed, pasta and bread are still regularly consumed.